While African-American Members of Congress from this era played prominent roles in advocating for reform, it was largely the efforts of everyday Americans who protested segregation that prodded a reluctant Congress to pass landmark civil rights legislation in the s.
However, this event is just one part of a struggle for African-American freedom and equality that both predates and outlasts the twentieth century.
African Americans in Arkansas at the turn of the twentieth century were in an embattled state, as they were across the rest of the South. They were politically disfranchised and increasingly segregated in most areas of public life. Race-baiting political demagogues such as Governor Jeff Davis stirred up anti-black sentiment with incendiary rhetoric: Extra-legal white violence and lynching reinforced legal measures to control the black population.
Periodic race riots occurred across the state from Hempstead County in southwest Arkansas into Harrison Boone County in northwest Arkansas in andto Elaine Phillips County in the Arkansas Delta in According to statistics compiled by the Tuskegee Institute in Alabama, which are almost certainly underestimated, blacks were lynched in Arkansas between andplacing it seventh highest in the nation for the occurrence of such murders.
With little power or help to resist their situation, many blacks followed the lead of the foremost regional and national black leader of the time, Booker T. Washington, in forming exclusively black institutions, organizations, associations, and businesses to sustain the black community.
Nevertheless, protests did occur.
One of the people at the forefront of the civil rights struggle during this period was black Little Rock lawyer Scipio Africanus Jones. Supreme Court in Moore v. Dempseythe leading national civil rights organization of the time found little support in the state.
The first and largest branch in Arkansas formed in Little Rock in and remained largely inactive. Inhe gained election as a delegate to the Republican National Convention, but this represented only a limited and begrudging compromise by whites.
Blacks would not be an important factor in the party again as they had been during Reconstruction and its immediate aftermath until the late s. By that time, the Arkansas Democratic Party was entrenched as the main political force in the state.
Blacks could vote at general elections after the payment of a one-dollar poll taxyet even this price was beyond the means of many, and the tax did not necessarily guarantee that black votes would be counted by whites at the ballot box.
In any case, it was the Democratic primaries where real power lay, since whoever won the party nomination inevitably won the general election, which was often uncontested. The lynching of John Carterwhose mutilated body was paraded around the streets of Little Rock by a mob of over 1, inunderscored the need for black political empowerment.
After Robinson won a temporary victory in the local courts, the ruling was overturned. It was unsuccessfully appealed all the way to the U. Supreme Court as Robinson v. The s marked a watershed in the civil rights struggle that saw segregation begin to weaken as foundations were laid for the later civil rights movement.
Although ultimately ambiguous, the New Deal did give hope to blacks of federal intervention on their behalf. With the mechanization and collectivization of agriculture in the Arkansas Delta, it also paved the way for the urbanization of the black population.
Larger black communities in villages, towns, and cities proved an essential building block for later black mobilization. World War II acted as a further catalyst for change. It witnessed an upsurge in black activism, reflected in a tenfold growth in national NAACP membership.
Many of its half a million members by the end of the war belonged to burgeoning Southern branches. Flowers and the CNO were convinced that if blacks began to purchase poll tax receipts and to cast their votes in general elections, it would prove a vital first step in raising black political consciousness to challenge the white Democratic primaries.
The paper was owned by husband and wife team L. Bates and Daisy Bateswho were good friends of Flowers. The increase in black activism was demonstrated by developments in Little Rock.The Civil Rights Movement And The Second Reconstruction, — _3_brooke_edwin_nara_PSDxml Image courtesy of National Archives and Records Administration Sworn in to the United States Senate on January 3, , Edward For an overview of the movement and its impact on lateth-century black America see Manning.
TRENDS IN 20TH CENTURY UNITED STATES GOVERNMENT ETHICS.
by. Steven Cohen and William B. Eimicke, School of International and The first era lasted from the late nineteenth century until the early 's and we have termed.
Cold War, the Space Race, the Civil Rights Movement, assassinations of political leaders such as the President. The late 19th and early 20th centuries.
As educational opportunity expanded among African Americans after the war, a self-conscious black middle class with serious literary ambitions emerged in . This database provides access to digital collections of primary sources (photos, letters, diaries, artifacts, etc.) that document the history of women in the United States.
These diverse collections range from Ancestral Pueblo pottery to Katrina Thomas's photographs of ethnic weddings from the late 20th century. Encyclopedia of the United States in the Nineteenth Century While other resources focus on different aspects of the 19th century, such as the Civil War or immigration, this is the first truly comprehensive treatment to cover all aspects of 19th-century history including: population, politics and government, economy and work, society and culture.
In the United States, the second half of the 20th century brought about historical socio-political movements that revolutionized American culture. Following the end of World War II in , the U.S. entered a new era, experiencing a sharp growth in population, a successful economy, and an increased standard of living.