Big guns free; lower rank officers, constabulary face music - By RK Misra Nov 19,Counterview Ghosts from the past have an uncanny way of turning up in the present with immense potential to blight the future of the most powerful. The deposition of Azam Khan, an Udaipur based small time gangster before the CBI court has brought to life the most speculated and worst-kept secret of the time - that the murder of the up and coming Gujarat BJP leader was a political extermination at the behest of some of the most powerful in the land of the Mahatma. The revelation about Pandya's killings surfaced in the course of the proceedings in the Sohrabuddin Sheikh alleged fake killing case inin which Vanzara was an accused with the then minister of state for home Amit Shah, and IPS officers Raj Kumar Pandiyan and Dinesh MN.
Therefore some historians in the West considered the work of Khalid ibn Yazid as legendary or fabricated. With the rise of Islam, and under the Umayyad and the Abbasid caliphates, the area consolidated its position and remained the heart of the civilized world.
With the conquest of Iraq, Iran, Syria and Egypt, the Islamic empire inherited the Sassanian and the Byzantine Empires and with them all the ancient civilizations.
In Iraq the Arab conquest was progressing in a parallel path. As soon as Syria came under Arab rule, the Arab armies were directed to Egypt.
The conquest of Egypt was achieved without much difficulty. With the rise of the Umayyad caliphate the Arab-Islamic conquests entered their second phase. They, in effect, doubled the size of the Empire, and before the end of their period a major portion of the world, as known then, became part of the Arab-Islamic caliphate.
Among these are the exhausting and weakening effects of the wars between the Sassanian and the Byzantine empires. This desire to carry the message of Islam created an international empire and resulted in confirming Islam as an international religion, and in ultimately creating an international culture which had a deep influence on the course of human civilization.
Pre-Islamic roots of civilization The first phase of the conquests united the lands of the ancient civilizations, the valleys of the Nile, Tigris and Euphrates along with the other countries in the area.
Here the first civilizations in history arose and developed, and in this same area Islamic civilization arose, flourished and reached its Golden Age. In the new Arab-Islamic Empire the various elements of the Syriac, Hellenistic and Persian civilizations were blended together and formed a fertile compost out of which Islamic civilization grew and blossomed.
The old fire was not yet extinguished in its original hearth when the Arabs conquered South-West Asia and Egypt; and with the rise of the Arab-Islamic Empire the fire started to kindle again with vigour at the hands of the Arabs, the new Muslim converts and the Arabized population of the region.
The first beginnings of science and technology in history took place in this area and from thence were diffused east and west.
The Sumero-Akkadian civilization is estimated to have started about the fifth millennium BCE, and the Egyptian in the fourth. The irrigation systems in Mesopotamia and in the Nile Valley were the mainstay of all pre-Islamic civilizations; and the industrial and technical skills in the cities in such products as textiles, leather, glass, metalworking items and armaments were unmatched.
Here the trades and crafts were developed and were handed over from one generation to the other, and so the inherent skills were deeply rooted in the urban societies. The same can be said about science and culture in general.
Science started to develop with the onset of the ancient civilizations of Mesopotamia and Egypt. This tradition continued uninterrupted. The Hellenistic civilization was principally a Near Eastern one which flourished in this same area; and until the eve of the Arab conquests, Iraq had been the power-house of the Sassanian empire, and Syria and Egypt of the Roman empire and then of Byzantium.
It had its roots in all the pre-Islamic civilizations of the same area.
Besides Islam and Arabic, Syriac, Persian and Greek cultural elements, formed the ancestral traditions of most of the Muslim population. Thus the history of pre-Islam includes that of Arabia and of the lands extending from the western Mediterranean to the Oxus or wherever Islam was established.
The Arab rulers did not disrupt daily life in the conquered areas. The civil administration was maintained, the crafts, trades, industries and agriculture continued as before.
Even the original cultural and religious institutions maintained their activities without interruption. The conversion to Islam and to Arabic developed with the passage of time and took a natural course.
This policy helped Islamic civilization to have its roots deeply embedded in a fertile soil. Non-Muslim centres of learning during Umayyad Caliphate The lands which were incorporated into the Umayyad Caliphate during the first century of Islam possessed ancient centers of learning.
By the time the Arabs established their rule, these centers of learning had already moved from Athens to Alexandria and, from thence to Antioch, Edessa and Nisibis.
It is also important to know that some esoteric aspects of the Graeco-Alexandrian heritage had also found fertile soil in the cult of the Sabaens of Harran who had developed their metaphysics on the foundation of the Hermetic-Pythagorean ideas of Alexandria and on the Babylonian and Chaldean traditions.
By the time the Arabs arrived in Syria, the Syriac-speaking Christian community had developed characteristic features of its own. In contrast to the Hellenized Christianity of the coastal areas, which used Greek Scriptures, the indigenous Semitic population used Syriac for divine worship.
Moreover, Syriac Christianity was more monastic in its general practices than the Hellenized church. In CE the provinces of the Roman Empire east of the Tigris fell to Sassanians and the Syriac Christian community to the east was cut off from the Byzantine Empire and hence from the influences of Antioch or Constantinople.
In addition to Alexandrian Hellenism, the intellectual heritage of Persians and Indians became simultaneously available to the Arabs. During the Sassanid period, the Persian king Shapur I had established a school at Jundishapur where Persian and Indian scholars were active.
By the seventh century, this school had integrated the Greek, Persian and Indian sciences and was perhaps unsurpassed in medicine and astronomy.Urbanism, Architecture, and the Use of Space Bangladesh is still primarily a rural culture, and the gram or village is an important spatial and cultural concept even for residents of the major cities.
Most people identify with a natal or ancestral village in the countryside. New hate crime tracker in India finds victims are predominantly Muslims, perpetrators Hindus (Nov 13, , ashio-midori.com) the world has become a progressively more frightening and dangerous place to live in for minorities of various kinds - religious, national, racial, linguistic, ethnic, and sexual - as well as for left and liberal dissidents.
Islamic indoctrination and favoritism in schools. Professor tells students: 'American intervention is the primary CAUSE of terrorism'.An American Studies class at the University of Massachusetts Boston teaches students that United States military intervention is the primary cause of terrorism in the world today.
After being taken down twice by Blogger within a single week, we got the message: It’s Time To Go. Gates of Vienna has moved to a new address. A concept of ‘The Islamic State’ has become very widespread among Muslims and non-Muslims and although the following document is based on my analysis of an essay whose origins I have so far been unable to trace, it has simply articulated a misconception that is very widespread.
Islam, Muslims and Islamic civilization are under siege in America. Subsequent to the tragic incidents of September 11, Afghanistan and Iraq wars, ISIS’s barbarism and Paris shooting, Islam both as religion and community has witnessed some of the worst attacks upon its heritage and legacy unprecedented in the previous history.