Extinction of surnames Matrilineal surnames are names transmitted from mother to daughter, in contrast to the more familiar patrilineal surnames transmitted from father to son, the pattern most common among family names today. For clarity and for brevity, the scientific terms patrilineal surname and matrilineal surname are usually abbreviated as patriname and matriname. A modern example from South Africa is the order of succession to the position of the Rain Queen in a culture of matrilineal primogeniture: Any clan might possibly contain from one to several or many descent groups or family groups — i.
Share this article Share Human rights group Equality Now revealed earlier this year that almost one in four survivors of female genital mutilation in the world is from the country. Earlier this year Egyptian doctor Raslan Fadl was convicted of manslaughter and performing female genital mutilation that led to the death of year-old Sohair el-Batea, sentencing him to more than two years in prison.
Female genital mutilation FGM is the deliberate removal of all or part of the external female genitalia. The World Health Organisation describes FGM as any procedure that injures the female genital organs for non-medical reasons. It is also referred to as female circumcision or female cutting.
FGM is mostly carried out on young girls in adolescence but is also carried out during childhood and sometimes on babies.
In some cultures, it is seen as a right of passage into womanhood and a condition of marriage. It is estimated that 3 million girls are cut every year across the world. Around 23, of these are carried out in the UK There is also a common belief that women need to have FGM to have babies.
But, infact, FGM can cause infertility and an increased risk of childbirth complications. The procedure is often carried out by a woman with no medical training.
Anaesthetics and antiseptic treatments are not generally used and the practice is usually carried out using knives, scissors, scalpels, pieces of glass or razor blades. Around 23, of these are carried out in the UK. The practice is particularly rife in some African, Middle Eastern and Asian countries.
In Africa, more than three million girls have been estimated to be at risk of female genital mutilation annually, according to the World Health Organisation. It estimates that more than million girls and women alive today have been cut in the 29 countries in Africa and Middle East where FGM is concentrated.
The practice is most common in the western, eastern, and north-eastern regions of Africa, in some countries in Asia and the Middle East, and among migrants from these areas.FEMALE GENITAL CUTTING: THE PRESSURES OF CULTURE, INTERNATIONAL ATTENTION, AND DOMESTIC LAW ON THE ROLE OF AFRICAN WOMEN AISHA NICOLE DAVIS This essay examines the international scrutiny of female genital cutting (FGC) often referred to as female genital mutilation (FGM), and how international.
Female Genital Mutilation Essay I strongly oppose Female Female Genital Mutilation The History, The Laws, The Opposition, In Africa, there is an estimated ,, girls 10 years old and above that have undergone female genital mutilation.
The procedure is generally performed without anesthesia by an older woman who acts as.
Selected links on Gender Based Violence. In , the UN Declaration on the Elimination of Violence against Women offered the first official definition of the term “Gender-based Violence”: “Any act of gender-based violence that results in, or is likely to result in, physical, sexual or psychological harm or suffering to women, including threats of such acts, coercion or arbitrary.
Essay on Female Genital Mutilation Two million girls are subjected to female genital mutilation in the name of tradition every year (Win News). That is a large amount of females that undergo this procedure. ABSTRACT In Africa, one of the key barriers to the scale-up of unconditional cash transfer programmes is the notion held by politicians, and even the general public, that such programmes will induce the poor to have more children.
This site differs from others opposed to genital mutilation: its focus is on intactness rather than on genital ashio-midori.com is intended to counteract the mindset that the foreskin is an "extra" "flap of skin" and that male genital cutting is the norm, and the corresponding .