There was probably everything from short quizzes during a unit, to large midterm and final exams for each subject, as well as the standardized assessments that most students take at the end of the school year. That adds up to a lot of testing.
The National Center for Culturally Responsive Educational Systems A considerable amount of evidence suggests that approaches involving early intervention, ongoing progress monitoring, and effective classroom instruction consistent with Response to Intervention RTI are associated with improved outcomes for the majority of students in early reading and math e.
Considerably less information exists, however, about the effectiveness of these approaches with a growing population of students, English language learners ELLs at risk for reading problems.
We also have considerably less information about the types of interventions that are effective for students who do not adequately respond to the interventions that typically are effective Vaughn et al. Such students are likely to be identified as having learning disabilities.
This article briefly highlights the knowledge base on reading and RTI for ELLs, and provides preliminary support for the use of practices related to RTI with this population.
Bilingual education students receive instruction in their native language and a structured program of ESL instruction. Students in ESL programs do not receive native language instruction; they are typically taught within general education classrooms and receive a support program for ESL.
In implementing RTI approaches with ELLs, a significant challenge is determining students' knowledge and skills in their first language and then understanding their performance in their second language English. For example, there are subgroups of students whose literacy knowledge and skills in their first language e.
These students have demonstrated the capacity to acquire reading skills and now require instruction so they can apply those skills to the acquisition of English literacy. Other students may have low literacy in both first language and English because they have not received adequate instruction in either language.
Still another group of students, the smallest group, demonstrates low literacy skills in both their first language and English even after receiving adequate instruction. Further complicating issues related to oral language development and literacy acquisition are situations in which a student's first language is not shared by other students in his or her grade, the student's first is a language without adequate print sources for instruction, or the student cannot receive instruction because a bilingual education teacher is not available to provide it.
For these reasons and myriad others, there are no formulas or ready guidelines that can be easily provided for assessment and treatment. It is also noteworthy that although there are many caveats and considerations involved in decision making about screening, assessment, and intervention for ELLs, parents and educators cannot postpone decision making until a better knowledge base is available.
They are eager to make decisions that will be associated with improved outcomes and that will facilitate appropriate early identification and intervention when required.
Thus, the following guidelines are provided to encourage educators to promote effective practices related to RTI with ELLs and to acquire further knowledge and skills so that they demonstrate improved confidence in their decision making with these students.
Keep in mind, though, that teachers and schools must proceed with the most effective practices possible. Also, please note that these guidelines may be altered as new research evidence becomes available.
Many educators, including those providing special education services, are concerned that they do not have the knowledge and skills to appropriately instruct ELLs. In some cases, these personnel are fearful that their lack of knowledge of the student's native language renders them incapable of providing valuable instruction.
As a result, they may elect to do the minimum amount needed to intervene and instruct. For this reason, it is essential that educators be provided with the resources needed to support them in this process. Being provided professional development for enhancement of knowledge and skills is essential; in addition, a problem-solving team with knowledge and experience working with ELLs can be a valuable resource to facilitate decision making and to design instructional supports.All students with disabilities participate in NeSA assessments with appropriate accommodations, if needed, or in NeSA-AA (alternate assessments).
CRITICAL ELEMENT. All English Language Learners are required, under Rev.
Stat. to participate in the State assessment system. CONSOLIDATED STATE APPLICATION ACCOUNTABILITY WORKBOOK.
English Language Learners (ELLs) are a large and growing population in our country and physical education is in a unique position to help as it has characteristics that are supportive of these students, with conditions similar to those in which children acquire their first language (Clancy, M.
. 4 ELL students are expected to take the NeSA English Language Arts (ELA) test with appropriate accommodations as outlined in this document.
English Language Learners A Policy Research Brief accommodations for eLL students only benefits those students. Reality: Research suggests that making main-stream classrooms more ELL-responsive will also make them more responsive to under . English Language Learning Ann Arbor Public Schools; Accommodations for ELLs; AAPS Teachers can use these resources to help them determine reasonable accommodations for the ELLs in their classes.
WIDA CAN-DOS. ELL Accommodations -- Accommodations that can be used in class, for homework assignments, and on tests. ELL Test Accommodations. Share My Lesson is a destination for educators who dedicate their time and professional expertise to provide the best education for students everywhere.