Platonic thinking Monday, April 22nd, at
Now I must admit that in my reading, I have not read everything Plato wrote. Reading the entire Republic has, sadly, defeated me, but I have it available for another try when Plato quotes on critical thinking retire.
Despite my unfamiliarity with his full canon, when I saw this quotation today, I knew it could not be from Plato: Music is a moral law. It gives a soul to the universe, wings to the mind, flight to the imagination, a charm to sadness, and life to everything. It is the essence of order, and leads to all that is good, just and beautiful, of which it is the invisible, but nevertheless dazzling, passionate, and eternal form.
Music and rhythm find their way into the secret places of the soul.
Those who wish to sing always find a song. At the touch of a lover, everyone becomes a poet. I decided to check through the collected works of Plato online at MIT and the Perseus Digital Library One issue to consider when sourcing a quote from another language is that translators may phrase foreign words differently in English.
My main printed sources for Plato are various Penguin translations from the s and 70s, and the Jowett translations of the late 19th century.
None of these share exact phrasing, of course, even for the same line. Tell him, Cebes, he replied, that I had no idea of rivalling him or his poems; which is the truth, for I knew that I could not do that.
But I wanted to see whether I could purge away a scruple which I felt about certain dreams. Make and cultivate music, said the dream. And hitherto I had imagined that this was only intended to exhort and encourage me in the study of philosophy, which has always been the pursuit of my life, and is the noblest and best of music.
Socrates continues his thoughts, saying: The dream was bidding me to do what I was already doing, in the same way that the competitor in a race is bidden by the spectators to run when he is already running.
But I was not certain of this, as the dream might have meant music in the popular sense of the word, and being under sentence of death, and the festival giving me a respite, I thought that I should be safer if I satisfied the scruple, and, in obedience to the dream, composed a few verses before I departed.
And first I made a hymn in honor of the god of the festival, and then considering that a poet, if he is really to be a poet or maker, should not only put words together but make stories, and as I have no invention, I took some fables of Aesop, which I had ready at hand and knew, and turned them into verse.
Tell Evenus this, and bid him be of good cheer; that I would have him come after me if he be a wise man, and not tarry; and that to-day I am likely to be going, for the Athenians say that I must.
They were something like this.
The same dream came to me often in my past life, sometimes in one form and sometimes in another, but always saying the same thing: But now, after the trial and while the festival of the god delayed my execution, I thought, in case the repeated dream really meant to tell me to make this which is ordinarily called music, I ought to do so and not to disobey.
For I thought it was safer not to go hence before making sure that I had done what I ought, by obeying the dream and composing verses.
So first I composed a hymn to the god whose festival it was; and after the god, considering that a poet, if he is really to be a poet, must compose myths and not speeches, since I was not a maker of myths, I took the myths of Aesop, which I had at hand and knew, and turned into verse the first I came upon.
So tell Evenus that, Cebes, and bid him farewell, and tell him, if he is wise, to come after me as quickly as he can. Plato had a lot to say about music, little of it suitable for the shallow New Agey sort of philosophy and that permeates Facebook.
And not to be tedious, let us say that the figures and melodies which are expressive of virtue of soul or body, or of images of virtue, are without exception good, and those which are expressive of vice are the reverse of good.
Hardly the stuff of the popular quotes-on-posters-with-photos-of-cute-kittens stuff that so many FB users prefer. Well said, my friend. To avoid a tediously long disquisition, let us sum up the whole matter by saying that the postures and tunes which attach to goodness of soul or body, or to some image thereof, are universally good, while those which attach to badness are exactly the reverse.
This is the point to which, above all, the attention of our rulers should be directed, —that music and gymnastic be preserved in their original form, and no innovation made.
They must do their utmost to maintain them intact. So Damon tells me, and I can quite believe him; he says that when modes of music change, of the State always change with them.
Then, I said, our guardians must lay the foundations of their fortress in music? Yes, he said; the lawlessness of which you speak too easily steals in. Yes, I replied, in the form of amusement; and at first sight it appears harmless.What Is Critical Thinking?
In the simplest terms, critical thinking is about carefully analyzing, processing and making sense of information. While it is often taught as part of a philosophy course (and has its roots in the work of Plato and Aristotle), critical thinking skills can be helpfully applied to any problem, subject area, question or.
The Critical Thinking Company publishes PreK+ books and software to develop critical thinking in core subject areas.
Branches of Beauty Western Philosophy Critical Theory Psychology quotes SOCIAL SCIENCE Philosophy quotes Critical Thinking Sociology Definitions Forward Branches of Logic [Ch Note the absence of the traditional study of material logic.
"Thinking: the talking of the soul with itself." - Plato quotes from ashio-midori.com quotes from Socrates: 'The only true wisdom is in knowing you know nothing.', 'The unexamined life is not worth living.', and 'There is only one good, knowledge, and one evil, ignorance.'.
I spent a pleasant morning, Saturday, browsing through the works of Plato, hunting for the source of a quotation I saw on Facebook, today. * I did several textual searches for words, phrases and quotes on sites that offer his collected works, along with other works by classical authors.