Research and technology of gwendolyn brooks

At 17, she started submitting her work to "Lights and Shadows," the poetry column of the Chicago Defenderan African-American newspaper. Her poems, many published while she attended Wilson Junior College, ranged in style from traditional ballads and sonnets to poems using blues rhythms in free verse. In her early years, she received commendations on her poetic work and encouragement from James Weldon JohnsonRichard Wright and Langston Hugheswell-known writers with whom she kept in communication and whose readings she attended in Chicago. She said, "I lived in a small second-floor apartment at the corner, and I could look first on one side and then the other.

Research and technology of gwendolyn brooks

The exception here is among private-sector nonunion women who have a high school diploma or less education. For this group, annual median wages for much of the past decades have been relatively flat.

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And bywomen with only a high school diploma or less education had seen their wages drop below levels that prevailed in Yet these explanations ignore a vital contributing factor: Unions and their effects on wage trends have been studied, but the research focuses on how the shrinking number of private-sector union members reduces the wage gains that accompany membership.

Officially the private-sector unionization rate is 6. The erosion was even larger among men without a college degree, falling from 38 percent to 11 percent.

Union membership was not as high among private-sector women as men injust 16 percent, so the drop by to 6 percent was not as severe the fall among non—college graduate women was the same. As a large body of work documents, unions raise the wages of their members, especially private-sector members, relative to nonunion workers.

Thus deunionization—the erosion of the share of workers who belong to a union—has directly contributed to wage stagnation by reducing the fraction of the workforce receiving the union wage premium.

Research and technology of gwendolyn brooks

In this report, we take a different approach to the issue of union decline and wages. We contend that unions, especially in industries and regions where they are strong, have indirect effects on wages, helping to establish pay and benefit standards that many nonunion firms adopt.

We begin in for two core reasons. First, research documents a sharp increase in earnings inequality starting around Globalization, technological advances, and institutional shifts—most notably the dramatic decline of the U.

These developments are intertwined in numerous ways. For example, union decline reduced resistance to offshoring, and offshoring, or the threat thereof, emboldened employers in union negotiations.

We reduce potential sources of bias in various ways, but caution that our interest is in describing population-level trends in wages for various groups of workers.

Thus while we avoid strict causal claims about wage determination, we believe our various analytical approaches lend confidence to our core contention that private-sector union decline has contributed to wage losses among workers who do not belong to a union.

This is especially true for men and for men who did not complete college or complete or go beyond high school who, as shown in Appendix Table 1, saw the largest erosion of union membership over the last few decades.

Why would nonunion workers benefit from a strong union presence in their labor market? One is through the threat of unionization: For example, Eastman Kodak, the leading producer of photographic film for much of the 20th century, was committed to keeping unions out of its major plants.

Other major nonunion employers monitored union contracts closely in efforts to forestall organizing campaigns. Research has documented how minimum-wage increases benefit workers who earn more than the minimum, through upward wage adjustments.

Research has found that lower-level managers—who, being managers, cannot unionize—benefit from a strong union presence in their surrounding labor market. Threat effects are one way in which union strength may benefit employees who do not belong to unions.

The economic literature on threat effects tends to conceive of unions as an institutional impediment to market pay rates, with employers endeavoring to minimize wages in the absence of unions, and raising them above their market rate only when forced to through collective bargaining or the threat thereof.

These norms can extend beyond the unionized core of the workforce, affecting nonunion workers whose employers follow the standards that unions help establish.

This is especially true in those times and places where organized labor is comparatively strong. Research has tied federal minimum wage increases to union strength.

Highly unionized states helped lift minimum wages above the levels of states where labor was comparatively weak.Division of Institutional Advancement and University Relations Division of Student Affairs Enrollment Management / Registrar.

Chapter 1: Revolving Files. The Revolving Files are our largest collection of core research materials. There are four revolving units, subdivided into carriers. - Gwendolyn Brooks' The Ballad of Late Annie "The Ballad of Late Annie" is one of several poems from Gwendolyn Brooks' "Notes from the Childhood and the Girlhood" section of her book Annie Allen.

Gwendolyn Elizabeth Brooks was born on June 7, , in Topeka, Kansas, the first child of David Anderson Brooks and Keziah Wims. Her mother was a former school teacher who had chosen that field because she could not afford to attend medical school.

FOUNDATION. The Foundation, founded in upon the termination of the Oxford Foundation, is dedicated to improving the quality of life for individuals and families through the support of nonprofits working in the areas of arts and culture, education, the environment, health, human services, and history.

Finding Nemo () cast and crew credits, including actors, actresses, directors, writers and more.

Education, Learning and Research Resources Online - Gale