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Although scholars still dispute the interpretation of the name,  there remain a few noteworthy interpretations. The oldest known form of the city's name is Astnide, which changed to Essen by way of forms such as Astnidum, Assinde, Essendia and Esnede.
The name Astnide may have referred either to a region where many ash trees were found or to a region in the East of the Frankish Empire.
Early history[ edit ] The oldest archaeological find, the Vogelheimer Klingedates back to—BC. Land utilization was very high — especially due to mining activities during the Industrial Age — and any more major finds, especially from the Mesolithic era, are not expected.
Finds from 3, BC and onwards are far more common, the most important one being a Megalithic tomb found in Simply called Steinkiste Chest of Stoneit is referred to as "Essen's earliest preserved example of architecture". Recent research into Ptolemy 's Geographia has identified the polis or oppidum Navalia as Essen.
The first abbess was Altfrid's relative Gerswit see also: InSaint Liudger had already founded Benedictine Werden Abbey on its own grounds a few kilometers south.
The region was sparsely populated with only a few smallholdings and an old and probably abandoned castle. This abbey was not an abbey in the ordinary sense, but rather intended as a residence and educational institution for the daughters and widows of the higher nobility; led by an abbess, the members other than the abbess herself were not obliged to take vows of chastity.
Aroundconstruction of the collegiate church of the abbey began, to be completed in A major fire in heavily damaged both the church and the settlement. The church was rebuilt, expanded considerably, and is the foundation of the present Essen Cathedral.
The first documented mention of Essen dates back towhen ZwentiboldKing of Lotharingiawilled territory on the western bank of the River Rhine to the abbey.
Another document, describing the foundation of the abbey and allegedly dating back tois now considered an 11th-century forgery.
She was to become the most important of all abbesses in the history of Essen. She reigned for over 40 years, and endowed the abbey's treasury with invaluable objects such as the oldest preserved seven branched candelabrum, and the Golden Madonna of Essenthe oldest known sculpture of the Virgin Mary in the western world.
Mathilde was succeeded by other women related to the Ottonian emperors: It was under the reign of Teophanu that Essen, which had been called a city sincereceived the right to hold markets in Ten years later, Teophanu had the eastern part of Essen Abbey constructed.
Its crypt contains the tombs of St. Altfrid, Mathilde II, and Teophanu herself. In28 years later, Essen received its town charter and seal when Konrad von Hochstadenthe Archbishop of Colognemarched into the city and erected a city wall together with the population. This proved a temporary emancipation of the population of the city from the princess-abbesses, but this lasted only until That year, King Rudolph I restored the princess-abbesses to full sovereignty over the city, much to the dismay of the population of the growing city, who called for self-administration and imperial immediacy.
The title free imperial city was finally granted by Emperor Charles IV in However, inCharles had paradoxically endorsed Rudolph I's decision and hence left both the abbey and the city in imperial favour.
Disputes between the city and the abbey about supremacy over the region remained common until the abbey's dissolution in Many lawsuits were filed at the Reichskammergerichtone of them lasting almost years.
The final decision of the court in was that the city had to be "duly obedient in dos and don'ts" to the abbesses but could maintain its old rights—a decision that did not really solve any of the problems.
Inthe city council, with its self-conception as the only legitimate ruler of Essen, introduced the Protestant Reformation. The Catholic abbey had no troops to counter this development.
Ina "re-Catholicization" law was enacted, and churchgoing was strictly controlled. Inthe city council filed against this at the Reichskammergericht.
Maria had to flee to Cologne when the Dutch stormed the city in She returned in the summer of following the Bavarians under Gottfried Heinrich Graf zu Pappenheimonly to leave again in September. She died in Cologne.
The war proved a severe blow to the city, with frequent arrests, kidnapping and rape. Even after the Peace of Westphalia fromtroops remained in the city until 9 September Hallo, ich bin Martin 27j. und kenn die Seite schon lang. Immer habe ich mir gewünscht das auch auszuleben und versuchte es mit meiner Ex.
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