Order of acquisition In the s, several studies investigated the order in which learners acquired different grammatical structures. Furthermore, it showed that the order was the same for adults and children, and that it did not even change if the learner had language lessons.
Due to the usage of direct and indirect speech acts in everyday conversations it will be analysed which conditions have to be fulfilled to have a successful speech act. The following theories will be used to answer the research question whether the same conditions have to be fulfilled for direct and indirect speech acts to be successful: After giving definitions of important linguistic terms and theories, the success of utterances and conversations in general will be described by the help of the Cooperative Principle by Grice.
Then different examples of Direct and Indirect Speech Acts will be analysed that will show the difference between the two forms. To explain how one can interpret the implicature in an utterance, the inference theory by Gordon and Lakoff will be taken into account.
In the end it is made clear that the success of Indirect Speech Acts depends on the context in which the utterance is made and also on other external conditions which the speaker cannot control himself as the speaker often requests a hearer uptake.
Different texts by Austin, Thomas, Levinson, Renkema, Cruse and Yule will be studied to get an answer to the research question.
Special focus will be put on the Indirect Speech Acts as they can be ambiguous and ask for a hearer uptake to be successful. Language thereby is used to transmit ideas, feelings and thoughts. Language can create connections between people speaking the same language but also distance between people speaking a different language, wherefore language has a social factor.
In specific situations people use language to express their feelings, to give information or to make other people do something and it is therefore important for the speaker to be understood correctly by the hearer.
By making an utterance, the speaker expects that his intention will be recognized by the hearer. This term paper deals with the theory of speech acts and the success of direct and indirect speech acts. The different conditions that have to be fulfilled to have a successful speech act will be discussed by looking at different examples.
In the beginning crucial terms will be defined to understand the theory behind speech acts. Furthermore, the felicity conditions by Searle will be taken into account to analyse under which conditions speech acts are successful.
After that the inference theory by Gordon and Lakoff will be used to explain how the implicature behind an utterance can be interpreted.
In the end of this term paper different examples will be analysed to make clear that there is a difference between direct and indirect speech acts which exists due to ambiguity and hearer uptake. That means that the speaker composes a sentences in a specific context.
The locution thereby is the grammatical structure of the utterance. The following examples show the different grammatical forms that an utterance can have: The speaker makes an utterance to make either a statement about the world, to apologize or to explain something.
This intended meaning behind the utterance is called illocutionary force and is internal to the locutionary act. The same locution can have different possible meanings depending on the context. This makes it obvious that in conversation it is not always clear what the intended meaning behind an utterance is.
That shows that the same utterance can be ambiguous and can only be understood by looking at the context in which it is uttered.
Renkema14 2. The speaker can chose to make his intended meaning explicit or to state it indirectly. The following examples show that the form correspondences with the function: That means that there is an indirect relationship between the form and the function of the utterance.
The following examples show that the form does not correspondence with the function: Felicity Conditions According to Searle, general conditions have to be fulfilled to have a successful communication.
The participants have to understand the language that is being used and that they are non-playacting. Besides these general condition Searle further divides felicity conditions into four classes: Renkema23 Propositional content condition requires that the locution must exhibit conventionally acceptable words for erecting the particular speech act.
Preparatory condition requires that specific requirements are existing such as that the utterance is made by a person that has the authority to do the action and that the utterance is stated in appropriate circumstances with appropriate actions.
If that condition is not met the act has not been carried out. The sincerity condition requires that the person performing the act must have appropriate beliefs or feelings to do the action. If that condition is not fulfilled there is an abuse.
The essential condition requires that the speaker commits himself to the speech act and takes upon himself the responsibility of carrying out the act. The propositional content condition is that it must be a future event.The communicative competence theory was the first attempt to see language as it is, a medium of communication, a vehicle of thoughts.
The communicative competence establishes that speakers should know not only the grammatical rules of the language but the . Politeness and Face Theory: Implications for the Backchannel Style of Japanese L1/L2 Speakers Pino Cutrone This article revisits the long-standing debate regarding the universality of Brown and Levinson’s theory of politeness.
The negative face of conversational participants is addressed from the perspective of L1/L2 Japanese speakers.
Speech act theory is built on the foundation laid by Wittgenstein and Austin. Thus Searle refers to statements as speech acts. The speech act is the basic unit of language used to express meaning, an utterance that expresses an intention.
Normally, the speech act is a sentence, but it can be a word or phrase as long as it follows the rules.
Course materials, exam information, and professional development opportunities for AP teachers and coordinators. English Composition Course - In the beginning of the English Composition 1 course, I felt as if I was not a very good writer.
A lot of what I learned in high school was completely different than that of my college English course. Gary Williams, Dept. Chair, Dept. of English ( Carol Ryrie Brink Hall ; phone /). Vertically-related courses in this subject field are: Engl Engl Developmental Writing (0 cr).